Composing Getter and Setter

Posted on 2017-11-17 by Oleg Grenrus lens

Adam Gundry gave a talk about optics at Haskell Exchange 2017, Through a Glass, Abstractly: Lenses and the Power of Abstraction. One take-away point from the talk is, that you want composition of Getter and Setter to be an error. You can compose getters with setters, in teir van Laarhoven or profunctor encoding of optics, but you can't do anything useful. So you'd rather fail early.

Except, it's Friday.

As this is a literal Haskell file, First a moderate prelude:

{-# LANGUAGE RankNTypes, DeriveFunctor #-}
module ComposeGetterSetter where

import Control.DeepSeq
import Data.Boring (Boring (..))
import Data.Functor.Identity
import Data.Distributive
import Data.Profunctor hiding (Mapping (..))
import Data.Profunctor.Traversing hiding (Mapping (..))

Let's work with profunctor encoding of optics, then

type Optic' p s a = p a a -> p s s
type Setter' s a = forall p. Mapping p => Optic' p s a
type Getter s a = forall p. (Bicontravariant p, Strong p) => Optic' p s a 

If we try to compose Getter and Setter, it will succeed, we'll get

type GetterSetter s a =
    forall p. (Bicontravariant p, Mapping p) => Optic' p s a

What would satisfy that? Well, a Boring type:

newtype Boom a b = Boom { runBoom :: a -> () } 

instance Boring (Boom a b) where
    boring = Boom boring

How that could be useful? By fast and loose reasoning it won't. But in Haskell, we also have seq.

If we take care, and write instances which force the arguments:

instance Profunctor Boom where
    dimap f _ (Boom h) = Boom (h . f)

instance Strong Boom where
    first' (Boom f) = Boom $ \(a, _) -> f a

instance Choice Boom where
    right' (Boom f) = Boom $ \x -> case x of
        Right y -> f y
        Left  _ -> ()

instance Bicontravariant Boom where
    cimap f _ (Boom h) = Boom (h . f)

instance Closed Boom where
    closed (Boom f) = Boom $ \_ -> ()

instance Traversing Boom where
    wander f (Boom g) = Boom $ \s -> f (\x -> g x `seq` Proxy') s `seq` ()

instance Mapping Boom where
    map' (Boom g) = Boom $ \fa -> fmap g fa `seq` ()
    roam f (Boom g) = Boom $ \s -> f (\x -> g x `seq` Proxy') s `seq` ()

by using strict Proxy':

data Proxy' a = Proxy' deriving Show

instance Functor Proxy' where
    fmap _ Proxy' = Proxy'

instance Applicative Proxy' where
    pure x = x `seq` Proxy'
    Proxy' <*> Proxy' = Proxy'

instance Distributive Proxy' where
    collect agb fa = Proxy'

we can define something interesting (maybe):

partialNF :: NFData a => Optic' Boom s a -> s -> ()
partialNF l s = runBoom (l (Boom rnf)) s

partialNF will use an optic to drill inside the structure, and evaluate the values inside.


First example is using Stream:

infixr 5 :::
data Stream a = a ::: Stream a deriving (Show)

Let's us define some optics, 'Getter' for the head, and 'Setter' for the tail of the 'Stream'. We don't define tl using setting, we'll see later why so.

hd :: Getter (Stream a) a
hd = to (\(x ::: _) -> x)

tl :: Setter' (Stream a) (Stream a)
tl = dimap (\(x ::: xs) -> (x, xs)) (uncurry (:::)) . second'

Now we can play with these:

λ> partialNF hd $ let s = () ::: s in s

that's quite boring.

How about:

λ> partialNF hd $ let s = () ::: error "friday" ::: s in s


λ> partialNF (tl . tl . hd) $ let s = () ::: error "friday" ::: s in s

Still, quite boring.

λ> partialNF (tl . hd) $ let s = () ::: error "friday" ::: s in s
*** Exception: friday


However, if we'd define:

tl' :: Setter' (Stream a) (Stream a)
tl' = setting $ \f (x ::: xs) -> x ::: f xs

Then the magic of laziness will prevent us from doing bad stuff :)

λ> partialNF (tl' . hd) $ let s = () ::: error "friday" ::: s in s

For the same reason

λ> partialNF (map' . first') [(1,2), (error "friday!",4)]

doesn't throw, but

λ> partialNF (traverse' . first') [(1,2), (error "friday!",4)]
*** Exception: friday!


To conclude, a composition of Getter and Setter has at least one, though quite questionable use case. However, partial normalisation doesn't if a Setter is defined using map' or roam, as they don't give opportunity to force the values "inside" the Functor.


Various definitions

-- type aliases
type Optic p s t a b = p a b -> p s t
type Lens' s a = forall p. Strong p => Optic' p s a

-- Mapping with roam
class (Traversing p, Closed p) => Mapping p where
    map' :: Functor f => p a b -> p (f a) (f b)
    map' = roam collect

    roam :: (forall f. (Applicative f,  Distributive f)
         => (a -> f b) -> s -> f t)
         -> p a b -> p s t
    roam = roamMap' map'

    {-# MINIMAL map' | roam #-}

roamMap' :: Profunctor p
         => (forall f. Functor f => p a b -> p (f a) (f b))  -- ^ map'
         -> (forall f. (Distributive f, Applicative f)
                     => (a -> f b) -> s -> f t)
         -> p a b -> p s t
roamMap' m f = dimap (\s -> Bar $ \afb -> f afb s) lent . m
    lent :: Bar t a a -> t
    lent m = runIdentity (runBar m Identity)

newtype Bar t b a = Bar
   { runBar :: forall f. (Distributive f, Applicative f)
            => (a -> f b) -> f t
   deriving Functor

-- Bicontravariant
class Bicontravariant p where
    cimap :: (b -> a) -> (d -> c) -> p a c -> p b d

-- Constructors
to :: Bicontravariant p => (s -> a) -> Optic' p s a
to f = cimap f f

setting :: Mapping p => ((a -> b) -> s -> t) -> Optic p s t a b
setting f = dimap (Context id) (\(Context g s) -> f g s) . map'

data Context a b t = Context (b -> t) a deriving Functor

-- Lenses for Stream
hdl :: Lens' (Stream a) a
hdl = dimap (\(x ::: xs) -> (x, xs)) (uncurry (:::)) . first'

tll :: Lens' (Stream a) (Stream a)
tll = dimap (\(x ::: xs) -> (x, xs)) (uncurry (:::)) . second'
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